So far as we can tell, all human languages are equally complete and perfect as instruments of communication: that is, every language appears to be well equipped as any other to say the things their speakers want to say.
There may or may not be appropriate to talk about primitive peoples or cultures, but that is another matter. Certainly, not all groups of people are equally competent in nuclear physics or psychology or the cultivation of rice or the engraving of Benares brass. Whereas this is not the fault of their language. The Eskimos can speak about snow with a great deal more precision and subtlety than we can in English, but this is not because the Eskimo language (one of those sometimes miscalled 'primitive') is inherently more precise and subtle than English. This example does not come to light a defect in English, a show of unexpected 'primitiveness'. The position is simply and obviously that the Eskimos and the English live in similar environments. The English language will be just as rich in terms for similar kinds of snow, presumably, if the environments in which English was habitually used made such distinction as important.
Similarly, we have no reason to doubt that the Eskimo language could be as precise and subtle on the subject of motor manufacture or cricket if these topics formed the part of the Eskimos' life. For obvious historical reasons, Englishmen in the nineteenth century could not talk about motorcars with the minute discrimination which is possible today: cars were not a part of their culture. But they had a host of terms for horse-drawn vehicles which send us, puzzled, to a historical dictionary when we are reading Scott or Dickens. How many of us could distinguish between a chaise, a landau, a victoria, a brougham, a coupe, a gig, a diligence, a whisky, a calash, a tilbury, a carriole, a phaeton, and a clarence ?
5 further 改为much
9 as important去掉as;
10 the part去掉the
From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-four I tried to abandon this idea, but I did so with the consciousness that I was outraging my true nature and that sooner or later I should have to settle down and write books.
I was the middle child of three, but there was a gap of five years on either side, and I barely saw my father before I was eight. For this and other reasons I was somewhat lonely, and I soon developed disagreeable mannerisms which made me unpopular throughout my schooldays. I had the lonely child's habit of making up stories and holding conversations with imaginary persons, and I think from the very start my literary ambitions were mixed up with the feeling of being isolated and undervalued. I knew that I had a facility with words and a power of facing unpleasant facts, and I felt that this created a sort of private world in which I could get my own back for my failure in everyday life. Nevertheless the volume of serious — i.e. seriously intended — writing which I produced all through my childhood and boyhood would not amount to half a dozen pages. I wrote my first poem at the age of four or five, my mother taking it down to dictation.
1. grew 后加 up
2. conscience 改成 consciousness
3. soon 改成 sooner
4. the 去掉
5. disagreeing 改成 disagreeable
6. imaginative 改成 imaginary
7. literal 改成 literary
8. in 去掉
9. which 前加 in
10. Therefore 改成 Nevertheless
The central problem of translating has always been whether to translate literally or freely．The argument has been going since at least the first (1) ______
century B.C．Up to the beginning of the 19th century, many writers
favoured certain kind of “free” translation: the spirit, not the letter; the (2) _______
sense not the word; the message rather the form; the matter not (3) _______
the manner．This is the often revolutionary slogan of writers who (4) _______
wanted the truth to be read and understood．Then in the turn of 19th (5) _______
century, when the study of cultural anthropology suggested that
the linguistic barriers were insuperable and that the language (6) _______
was entirely the product of culture, the view translation was impossible (7) _______
gained some currency, and with it that, if was attempted at all, it must be as (8) _______
literal as possible．This view culminated the statement of the (9) _______
extreme “literalists” Walter Benjamin and Vladimir Nobokov.
The argument was theoretical: the purpose of the translation, the
nature of the readership, the type of the text, was not discussed．Too
often, writer, translator and reader were implicitly identified with
each other．Now, the context has changed, and the basic problem remains． (10) _____
5．in 改为 at
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